Hospital Information System- Various Integral Aspects
Hospital information systems were first developed and actively implemented in the 1960s. The primary purpose was to enhance, improve and make hospital management and operating systems functional.
Also known as Clinical Information Systems (CIS), hospital information systems i.e. HIS constitute an integral component of the umbrella concept of hospital management systems. HIS is a computer system designed to manage all the hospital's medical and administrative information in order to enable health professionals perform their jobs effectively and efficiently. It is a computer based system developed and designed for collecting, storing, manipulating and making available clinical information important to the healthcare delivery process. Hospital information systems focus on the integration of all clinical, financial and administrative applications. HIS, thus could also be called an integrated hospital information processing systems (IHIPS).
HIS is a complicated system of software which manages all aspects of hospitals administration and patient care. It has several components which ensure the smooth running of the medical hospital. It includes:
» Financial Management systems
» Pharmacy and Nursing management systems
» Hospital Information technology including software systems
» Radiology and other surgical procedural management systems
» Inbound and Outbound Patient Care management systems
» Laboratory Management systems
Financial Information Systems (FIS) are computer systems that manage the business aspect of a hospital. FIS is essential to a medical hospital function and existence as proper employee management including payroll, accounting, auditing and billing procedures, administer the daily operation of the hospital. Some of the features of Financial Information Systems are:
» Payroll: Handles all the recurring and non-recurring payments and deductions for employees. All recurring transactions can be automatically generated each payroll period with non-recurring transactions such as overtime added to the payroll upon approval. It maintains employee pay rates, entitlements, full salary movements and payroll histories.
» Patient Accounting: FIS uses hospital management software for handling financial transactions generated during a patient's visit to the hospital. These include inpatient and outpatient charges, doctors' fees generated across the hospital, the cost of procedures, operations and medications.
» Accounts Payable: FIS takes the help of hospital billing software programs to handle the processing of invoices and payments within the hospital.
» Accounts Receivable: This provides support for and the maintenance of the records of all clients, invoices and payments.
A radiology information system (RIS) is a computer system that assists radiology services in the storing, manipulation and retrieving of information. It includes areas of:
» Scheduling: Patient appointments for inpatients and outpatients are scheduled when an order is received. Functions for scheduling the various available radiology staff with the allocated time slots are handled by the radiology information system.
» Patient Tracking: The patient can be tracked from admission to discharge, with all the radiology procedures carried out duly recorded. This would include the patient's past, present and future appointments.
» Results Reporting: Reports concerning the results of an individual patient, a group of patients or a particular procedure can be generated using a radiology information system.
» Nursing and Pharmacy management systems: This includes the vital activity of patient management. Specifically, this component handles the training, recruitment and development of nursing staff in a medical hospital. It also deals with research activities and bed care management activities. This component often overlaps with RIS looking into tracking facilities.
HIS forms the bedrock of every hospital management system. The success of HIS depends upon the smooth function of hospital information technology including hospital billing software programs.